Vol. I. Philadelphia, Second Month, 1820. No. 2.
FOR THE RURAL MAGAZINE.
I cannot exactly tell why it was, that I felt particularly interested in the prospectus for the Rural Magazine; but I instantly resolved to become a subscriber, and fell to ruminating upon the benefits it might confer upon the country. Whether I conceived at once the idea of writing these essays, and took to myself a full share of its imagined usefulness and celebrity; or whether my satisfaction arose from disinterested motives, I felt a glow of kind feeling towards the editors, which expanded itself upon all around me. I dismissed my little school at an earlier hour than usual, and having simply reprimanded some idle culprits, to whom I should otherwise have administered the ferule, I devoted the remainder of the afternoon to writing a letter to a friend in town; in which I concluded a declamation upon the worthlessness of literary fame, by requesting him to place my name in the list of subscribers and contributors.
Since then, the Magazine has frequently been the subject of my reveries; for the design is exactly what I have long desired to see attempted. Every man who has travelled half way up the hill of life, and has gained its fortieth milestone, will have amassed stores of thought and observation, which he is apt to think of inestimable value:—at least I find it so with me. There are many topics on which I differ from my friends, and in regard to which I am anxious to develope my opinions. Some others to which I attach a greater importance than is usually done; and many upon which my particular station in life has thrown lights which may be new and interesting to the public mind. For these reasons, I have long desired to extend my voice and authority beyond the precincts of my little kingdom, and to try the experiment of schooling the public in some of those great truths, which are too little regarded or understood, and bringing back its taste to the pure and simple enjoyments of rural life. Whether I shall succeed in my attempt to gain the public ear, will depend, perhaps, upon accident; for while the greatest merit has often languished in obscurity, folly and incapacity have as often caught the gale of popular favour. If I fail, I shall not be without consolation; for the most unsuccessful author finds it easier to censure the public for want of penetration, than himself for want of talent. I trust that I shall have occasion for no such reflections. It may be an author's vanity, and yet the voice of praise can scarcely reach my secluded abode; but my fancy already paints the bright eyes, and glowing cheeks that will hang over these essays, and the sober approbation with which mature age will perceive that they are devoted to the cause of truth and sound morality. Neighbour Schemer is welcome to pass over my numbers in search of the newest plans of farming, so long as he allows his blooming Emily to pause over them; and what do I care though old Lovegain pronounce them to be stupid stuff? I had rather possess the approbation and esteem of his lovely Sophia, than half his acres!
It is a hopeless task, and may seem full of vanity, to enter the lists where so many have been foiled, and where all the great prizes have been born away by the master spirits of former times. But not to mention that fame is no object of my pursuit; the lofty rewards I speak of, were gained by the finest geniuses in our language, and conferred by the approbation of the world. My humbler attempt is to please villagers and farmers; and my ambition will be attained, if they crown me with the fragrant and perishing wreath that shall resemble their grateful though short-lived recollections.
Custom and authority have assigned to the essayist a peculiar character. He is privileged at all places and in every family. Childhood loves and fondles upon him; and age and fashion, the man of pleasure and the man of business, alike consult and confide in him: above all, he is the particular favourite of the ladies, and is supposed to be knowing in all the labyrinths of the female heart, and all the points of etiquette and gallantry. He has, therefore, from time immemorial, been their faithful adviser, transmitted their billetsdoux, and corrected their letters. He is a notable dreamer, a great traveller, and a universal scholar: he generally passes for a grey headed sage, and yet is a very Proteus in his appearance and behaviour. The family is descended from Isaac Bickerstaff, esq.; a venerable gentleman, who made a considerable figure, and acquired much substance in queen Anne's time. Some of his descendants have been solemn and pedantic, and others giddy and frolicksome; but the features I have portrayed, run more or less through the whole family. Its enemies say that it is no longer what it was; that it has retained its homely peculiarities, without its originality and freshness, its wit and gallantry of character. Gentle reader, believe me, this is an unfounded calumny!
A branch of the family settled in this country about eighty years since, and some of the American descendants have proved worthy of the original stock. One of them, renouncing the social habits of his kinsmen, went abroad among the fields and the solitudes of Nature, and there poured forth his soul in strains, of which a poet might have been emulous. It was he who first made the English Muses familiar with the sublimity of our native forests. Another, whose natural disposition was checked by the force of circumstances, devoted himself to the education of a favourite niece and nephew; and has given a signal example that an old bachelor is not always a useless being. A third, more merry and more melancholy, more sarcastic and more eccentric than all who went before him, divided his time between laughing at the world, and wandering over the scenes of his youthful and perished enjoyments. He still lives, although in a foreign clime and under an assumed name, to enjoy the love and admiration of his countrymen.
Reader, I have already told thee how humble are my own pretensions. If I do not attract thy regard from my own merits, love me for the sake of my family; and have a kind eye to my rude speech and rustic manners, in the recollection of those from whom I boast to have descended.
FOR THE RURAL MAGAZINE.
——Trahit sua quemque voluptas.... Virgil.
It is a fact which can never be successfully controverted, that man, in every stage of society, is addicted to pleasure; the uncultivated savage, and the sage philosopher are equally devoted to the attainment of felicity; are equally desirous to secure a perpetuity of happiness. The benevolent Creator of the universe seems to have endowed the human race with faculties peculiarly susceptible of pleasurable sensations; accordingly it becomes the business of every one, almost from his first entrance into life, to seek after such pleasures as are peculiar to the bent of his disposition, and to avoid every object or pursuit that has a tendency to pain or disappointment. If, however, all pleasures were in their nature innocent, and left behind no sting of remorse and anxiety, still man would inevitably soon feel the approaches of languor, especially whilst indulging in a round of mere sensual gratifications, and would earnestly sigh for some more permanent species of felicity; a felicity which might gently affect his mind, without overpowering his faculties in such a degree as to produce subsequent pain. But as the world is now constituted, it becomes the indispensable duty of the moralist, not only to guard mankind against excess in their pleasures, but also to warn them against such as are accompanied with vice and criminality. He therefore is not the true friend of mankind, who recommends to his fellow beings a continual abstinence from every gratification, or who would lead them to expect pleasure from sensual gratifications alone; but he who points out to their notice, those delights which are most durable, and at the same time, consistent with the strictest virtue.
It must, without hesitation, be allowed, that religion is the source of the most exalted happiness that any human being can enjoy. Religion alone inspires the soul with a perfect dependance on the goodness and love of the Deity, and diffuses over the mind that calmness and serenity, which inevitably proceed from a reception of his mercy and benevolence, ever manifested towards all his creatures. All the pleasures of life are so many poisonous ingredients in our cup, till religion purifies and destroys the noxious qualities with which they are tainted. Let religion mingle with our pleasures, and every thing of an evil tendency vanishes before it. Religion furnishes genius with its noblest theme, and it affords the fullest employment for all the energies of the human intellect. But another species of pleasure, most grateful, and ennobling to the human mind, arises from the exercise of the understanding in literary pursuits, and in the study and admiration of the various productions of human genius. A life thus devoted will afford more real gratification to an uncorrupted mind, than voluptuousness, with all her allurement, can offer, or than intemperance, with her bacchanalian crew, has power to bestow. We may indeed almost venture to assert, that if pure and rational happiness is any where to be found, except in the temples of religion, she resides in the studies of the learned, and sweetens all their labours. The cultivation of a literary taste is the source of rational and innocent entertainment; it is a powerful preservative from vice, and contributes to exercise in the soul a love of virtue. The pleasures of sense are all transitory in their nature, and have a direct tendency to debase the mind; while on the contrary, intellectual pursuits, delight us the more we are engaged in them, and even when their novelty is worn off, they still retain their charms. From the first period in which man is endowed with the use of his reasoning faculties, there is a constant struggle between the animal and intellectual powers. These endeavour to raise man to a state of immortal felicity, those, to sink and degrade him to a level with the brutes. Whatever pleasures, therefore, tend to increase the predominance of reason over the sensual desires, are favourable to the interests of virtue and religion. The pleasures of literature are of this nature; they strengthen and invigorate the faculties of the mind, and render it capable of manly exertion; they inspire cheerfulness and serenity, and produce an exquisite gratification to the mental powers; in short, they are as much superior to any thing of a sensual nature, as the nature of the human soul is superior to that of the body.
Jan. 4th, 1820.
FOR THE RURAL MAGAZINE.
The following is a copy from the original of a letter written by Dr. Franklin, and never before published. As the subject is one, invested at the present moment, with considerable interest to the people of this country, and coming from the pen of a celebrated man, whose patriotism, it is believed, was never doubted, it may perhaps be acceptable to your readers, and worthy of preservation in the pages of the Rural Magazine. Whether the Doctor is right or wrong in his theory, the public will determine.
"London, Feb. 20, 1768.
"Dear Friend.—I wrote to you a few lines by Capt. Falconer, and I sent you Dr. Watson's new piece, of experiments in inoculation, which I hope will be agreeable to you.
"The Boston people pretending to interfere with the manufactures of this country, make a great clamour here against America in general. I have endeavoured, therefore, to palliate matters a little in several public papers. It would, as you justly observe, give less umbrage if we meddled only with such manufactures as England does not attend to. That of linen might be carried on more or less in every family, (perhaps it can only do in a family way) and silk I think in most of the colonies. But there are many manufactures that we cannot carry on to advantage, though we were at entire liberty. And after all, this country is fond of manufactures beyond their real value: for the true source of riches is husbandry. Agriculture is truly productive of new wealth; manufacturers only change forms; and whatever value they give to the materials they work upon, they in the meantime consume an equal value in provisions, &c.; so that riches are not increased by manufacturing; the only advantage is, that provisions in the shape of manufactures, are more easily carried for sale to foreign markets, and where the provisions cannot be easily carried to market, 'tis well so to transform them for our own use as well as foreign sale. In families also, where the children and servants of farmers have some spare time, 'tis well to employ it in making something; and in spinning, or knitting, &c. to gather up the fragments of time, that nothing be lost; for these fragments though small in themselves, amount to something great in the year, and the family must eat whether they work or are idle. But this nation seems to have increased the number of its manufactures beyond reasonable bounds, (for there are bounds to every thing,) whereby provisions are now risen to an exorbitant price by the demand for supplying home mouths; so that there must be an importation from foreign countries: but the expense of bringing provisions from abroad to feed manufacturers here, will so enhance the price of the manufactures, that they may be made cheaper where the provisions grow, and the mouths will go to the meat.
"With many thanks for your good wishes, I am, dear friend, affectionately yours,
"Dr. Cadwallader Evans."
FOR THE RURAL MAGAZINE.
Perhaps there is no nation existing, amongst whom there is so large a proportion of readers, as may be found in the United States. The freedom of our form of government, and its appropriate concomitant, the freedom of the press, impart the requisite facilities for a wide dissemination of knowledge, and furnish the motives and the means for cultivating it with success. Of newspapers, we have, if not a redundant, at least a copious supply. They are introduced into almost every nook and by-place of our extensive territory; and no individual who can read, need deny himself the gratification, of poring over their pages, and learnedly descanting on their contents. The moral influence of these popular vehicles of intelligence, may therefore from these facts, be properly estimated, and the importance of their being judiciously conducted, will at once be acknowledged. It is not the ponderous volume, the learned and elaborate dissertation, the abstruse researches of the ontologist, that moulds the sentiments of the great mass of any people, and implants in their bosoms the every-day principles of action; for to these they are utter strangers, and the laborious student may continue to monopolize them, without exciting in their minds the slightest regret: that however, which is brief, and simple, and practical, in other words, that which will be generally read, cannot fail to produce a deep and lasting impression on the public mind.
With these convictions on the subject, it is contemplated, as leisure and inclination may suggest, to furnish a series of occasional papers, under the title indicated above. The plan of the writer, like those of his illustrious predecessors, is broad and liberal; unencumbered by systematic restraint; he intends to ramble over hill and dale, to seek for admission, not only at the cottage, but also at the mansion of opulence; and no topic shall be excluded calculated to promote general utility. To liberalise the public sentiment, to enlighten the public mind, in fine, to make men better, and by a necessary consequence, to promote public and private happiness, shall be his cardinal and favourite object. Human life and its incidents, men and things, literature and morals, will all be kept in view; and facts and illustrations, which may be subservient to his purpose, whether derived from observation or reflection, from society or from books, will not be forgotten or disregarded. Of the negative qualities of his proposed papers, he can speak without reserve and with entire confidence; they shall never offend the eye or ear of delicacy or of virtue. Immediate and personal observation, is entitled to a decided preference where it is possible to be consulted; but to him, the extent of whose migrations have been merely "from the blue bed to the brown," this is a resource which will often fail. Distant countries and former periods of time will therefore be contemplated, to use a significant phrase of Dryden, "through the spectacles of books." By thus cultivating an acquaintance with the generations which are past, and by thus holding converse with the mighty dead, we may augment the power of useful information, fortify our good principles, and become better qualified to perform the respective duties assigned us in the world. Human nature continues to travel onward with her venerable but untiring companion, Time, without the least change of character. Every feature, which appertained to her, six thousand years ago, will still be recognized by the discerning observer. It is, therefore, extremely desirable, that experience should not be lost upon us; but that her beacons should serve as a polar star, by which to steer our course with safety, through the dangerous and perplexing labyrinths of life.
There is no question, that the very essence of papers, which shall successfully prefer claims to popular favour, or to practical utility, must be variety. The strength of Johnson himself could not shield his great moral work from the charge of unvaried and monotonous solemnity. He inculcated the doctrine, and exemplified it by his own writings, that even "uniformity of excellence" will at length nauseate the palate, not merely of the fastidious reader, but of him likewise whose only object is truth.
A prominent purpose will be attained, if the dominion of fashionable folly shall be narrowed, and the attention of her votaries withdrawn from the frivolous and giddy circles in which they revolve; and steadfastly directed to the great interests of society, the cause of sound morals and unsophisticated virtue. Is it not a fact calculated to awaken the most profound regret, that many of our fellow citizens, particularly in the wealthy metropolis of Pennsylvania, who are invested with an elevated rank in life, and enjoy in profusion its good things, appear to live only for themselves? Men of this description, are really blanks in existence; and mistake most egregiously, the great errand of life. They may appropriately adopt the language of Pomfret:
Although sometimes assuming the province of a censor, the Desultory Remarker will on all proper occasions, delight to unbend the stern and rigid brow of reproof, to mingle in the circles of innocent mirth and cheerfulness. He who increases the stock of "harmless pleasure," makes the public his debtor; but in order to ascertain that such is the character of pleasure, the requisite tests must be faithfully and rigorously applied. Cheerfulness uniformly shuns all intercourse with vice, but virtue is her favourite and appropriate companion.
The Desultory Remarker having thus in a spirit at once unreserved and candid, introduced himself to the reader will for the present respectfully take his leave; but with the hope of having other opportunities of cultivating a further acquaintance.
FOR THE RURAL MAGAZINE.
My own observation, and the opinions of others, induce me to believe, that generally speaking, less attention is given to education among the farmers of Pennsylvania than was the case half a century ago. At any rate, the opportunity for instruction within the last fifty years, has not kept pace with the increased ability to furnish it.
Land has appreciated, and the productions of the soil have yielded great profits to the husbandman; but the intellectual harvest has been of little account. The habits and manners of each successive generation, display the avidity with which foreign customs and fashions are embraced by the yeomanry of the country, but these outside evidences of what is called refinement, have added nothing to the stock of our mental resources, and greatness. My purpose however, is to suggest plans of improvement, rather than to find fault with existing errors, for I am convinced that if a liberal and judicious system be adopted for enlarging the minds of our youth, and storing them with sound principles, the follies, (perhaps the vices,) which now so much engross their attention, disfigure their character, and mar their usefulness, would be ultimately corrected. Scholastic learning alone will not, I am fully satisfied, mend the heart, or sanctify the understanding; but I am equally sure, that ignorance as a quality, never contributed to render the mind over which it held a dark and dreary reign, in a greater degree susceptible of those benign views, and exalted aims, which give to the accountable being, a just conception of the design of his Creator.
If my opinion be worth any thing, of which you must be the judges, I would recommend the establishment of schools in every neighbourhood; but upon a very different foundation from that which generally obtains. Instead of an itinerant schoolmaster, who goes forth in the latter part of autumn in search of subsistence through the winter months, often without qualifications for the task he solicits, and not unfrequently of equivocal moral reputation, select a teacher estimable for his private virtues as a man, and respectable for his literary and scientific acquirements; remunerate him with a liberal salary; erect a suitable and comfortable building for the accommodation of the school: supply it with maps, globes, &c., and commence a library of useful books. Send your children regularly to school throughout the year, and thus make their education as much a business, and duty, as the cultivation of your farms. Short of this, will not fulfil the obligations which every parent owes to his offspring. We are social beings, and our prosperity and happiness depend primarily upon ourselves, and secondarily upon others; so that we are advancing our own interests and comforts, when we promote that of those by whom we are surrounded. In every neighbourhood in the country there are a few individuals whose pecuniary means will not permit them to defray the expenses of education, which the more wealthy can afford, and the condition of the indigent has been seriously affected in this respect, by the institution of boarding schools. To those seminaries, the children of the affluent are sent; the common schools are consequently neglected; the poor go uninstructed, and a wide, and fatal distinction is thus created, among the inhabitants of the same vicinage. Rather, fellow citizens, than perpetuate this sort of classification in society, direct your attention to the formation of good schools at home, to which every child may be admitted; where all may partake of the same common benefits and blessings. You will thus place all on a par in the advantages of instruction, create in the minds of all, the same respect for those moral obligations which hold the community together in the bond of safety and peace, and confer upon your offspring the most solid security.
A youth, the son of one who is competent to defray the expense of his education at a boarding school, or college, is sent from home at the age of sixteen; is absent three or four years; has formed new associations, and contracted new notions; he returns to his birth-place; he has outgrown the recollections, and intimacies of his childhood; he feels a sort of elevation above the children of his neighbourhood, who have been groping in ignorance during his absence; he stands aloof; jealousy takes hold on the minds of those who observe this difference, and every evil passion begins its operation; the consequences are as sad, as they are certain.
Contemplate the reverse of the picture. Behold the youth of adjoining farms for several miles in circumference, collected together in one school; pursuing the same studies; partaking of the same general care, in a moral and religious point of view, which every conscientious teacher will find it his pleasure to extend toward his pupils; participating in the same innocent recreations; growing up together with similar views of private duty, and public obligation; witness such an instance as this, and you may be assured that from hence will proceed much which will dignify and adorn the locality, where it is found to exist.
As these reflections have occurred to me, I have taken the freedom of presenting them to your consideration. I am influenced by no other motive than that which would induce me to be the humblest agent in promoting the true interests of our country, and enlarging, if it were in my power, the circle of human happiness.
FOR THE RURAL MAGAZINE.
There is scarcely any thing which is more injurious to the mind, or which will more effectually prevent the acquisition of knowledge, than a habit of reading for amusement only.—For, it will necessarily happen, that impressions, which have not been strengthened by reflection, will be quickly obliterated; and we cannot expect to derive permanent advantage from the mere pursuit of temporary enjoyment.
To obviate the effects of a practice so pernicious, and to accustom the mind to the investigation of causes, the study of history is peculiarly adapted, for while it furnishes to the reflecting mind, ample room for the exercise of its powers, it is in itself, sufficiently attractive, to engage the attention of the most careless reader, it is indeed delightful, to
to associate with men, upon whom a world has gazed with fear and wonder, to mingle in the conflicts Of nations, and to dwell upon the restlessness of ambition, the fearless perseverence of patriotism: nor is it less instructive to mark the gradual unfoldings of virtuous or vicious propensities, and to observe how frequently the sacrifice of all the enjoyments of life to the attainment of some favourite objects has been rewarded, with the hopeless gloom attendant upon satiety. History may thus be said to convey to us the experience of ages; and he must be an indifferent or a prejudiced observer, who cannot find his own feelings portrayed in the motives which it developes.
But, with whatever views we may have undertaken this important study, we shall find it fruitless of permanent benefit, unless we shall have been impressed with the conviction of the absolute necessity of examining into the evidence of facts, and the correctness of deductions. It is thus only that we can be preserved from the danger of imbibing erroneous opinions on subjects affecting the common prejudices of mankind, or the peculiar doctrines of our authors. It is this assumption of popular sentiments which has degraded the human character, and reduced the highest intellectual powers to a dependence upon the lowest; and it is this reliance upon the impartiality of the historian, which has lent its assistance to the speculations of a false philosophy, in leading men into all the wanderings of scepticism. Let the student of history who is in pursuit of truth, endeavour to acquaint himself with the private opinions of the author whom he has taken for his guide, and let him beware, lest he admit any conclusion, however unimportant, which may seem to be at variance with the dictates of reason or of experience. Two important ends will thus be attained. By establishing a connection between the events detailed in history, and the reasonings founded upon them, they will be more likely to be retained in the memory; and by convincing himself of the fallacies in the arguments of its opponents, the reality of any truth will be more deeply impressed upon the mind. He who is thus habituated to scrutiny, will derive instruction from the errors of those with whom he is conversant; and may be compared (to borrow from the beautiful simile of bishop Horne,) to those who visit the country in spring, for whom "the very hedges are in bloom, and every thorn produces a a flower."
FOR THE RURAL MAGAZINE.
The following is an extract of a letter from the late President Adams, to a friend of the editors. Any thing from the pen of this eminent and venerable man will be read with interest, and ought to be public property. The anecdote is characteristic, and the obvious moral influence to be deduced from it, will strike the mind of every attentive reader.
Quincy, January 12th, 1820.
Dear Sir.—I thank you for your New-Year's letter, &c. * * * * As agriculture is the nursing mother of us all, it cannot be too assiduously cultivated; nor is it likely to be too much honoured, while mercantile profits are so much greater, and military glory is esteemed the highest glory!
The "American" is an able writer; but I wish he had avoided so many appearances of endeavouring to justify, or at least to apologize for slavery in general. His arguments ad hominem from the Bible, reminded me of an anecdote, which as I am an old man, and as old age has a privilege to be talkative and narrative, I will attempt to relate: In the winter of '76, Mr. Paine's Common Sense and my Thoughts on Government, made their appearance in public, the one not long after the other. Common Sense recommended the Thoughts on Government; an organization in three distinct departments, as independent of each other as human beings can be;—the legislature to consist of three branches. Mr. Paine came flying to my apartment, to reproach me for publishing a monarchico, aristicratico, democratico system. He scolded violently, but I soothed him down by laughing at him in my turn. Paine, said I, how could you be such an abominable hypocrite, as to pretend to prove in your Common Sense from the Old Testament, that monarchy was not lawful by the word of God? This struck him dumb for a moment, but recovering himself, and shrugging his shoulders, and laughing, said, with great contempt; "I believe nothing of the Old Testament, nor the New neither;" and then pausing, said, "I have had thoughts of publishing my opinions upon religion, but upon the whole I have concluded to put it off till the latter part of my life." This plan he consistently pursued.
I am not sorry his bones are gone to England, to moulder in the soil where they grew; for I claim neither to myself or to my country, any honour from having once supported them.
I am, Sir, your obliged friend, and humble servant,
(Communicated for the Rural Magazine.)
Philada. Sept. 16, 1819.
My Dear G.
You know how very apt persons are to form an opinion of other persons with whom accident or design makes them acquainted, either on the very wise principles of Lavater, or the still wiser principles of Doctor—what's his name—(I wish I could forget as easily the labour I lost in studying him)—who first conceived craniology. You know also that I had every predisposition to the study of both these abstruse sciences, and the consequent deductions; so you will not be much surprised when I tell you that I have employed the time that has elapsed since the date of my last, in observing the physiognomy of Philadelphia. I did this, before I trespassed on the good-will, the hospitality, or the politeness of any of its citizens. You will observe I am perfectly distinct in my classification, and I beg of you to remember this, when you peruse any of my rambling epistles hereafter. My letters would, I hope, have commanded the civil attention of any person to whom they were addressed, independent of any particular kindness to which the recommendation of our venerable Quaker friend D—— of London would on the principle of reciprocity entitle me. But before I penetrated like Asmodeus in "Le Diable Boiteaux," into the domestic circle, the parlour, the halls, the tables, or the toilettes, or (shall I say it) to the counter and the desk. I wished to see the roofs, at least, if I could not see through them. So for the last week I have been studying physiognomies. There can be no need of apology to you my friend, who, (Heaven be praised) have never had occasion to leave the precincts of your ancient patrimony for any thing but pleasure, for dilating on a city that so far as it regards myself, has hitherto been on a par with Herculaneum or Pompeia. Some manuscripts and some printed accounts I have seen, but like those saved from the lava of Vesuvius, they were hardly worth unfolding. Indeed, I always pitied poor Sir Humphrey for so incomprehensible a task. He had better have staid at home, and made experiments in separating the brick and mortar from the old ruins lord L—— boasts of having been in his family, at the smallest calculation from William Rufus. I do wonder what it could have been that the ancients took such care of.
Well—I have seen Philadelphia.—And if it were not for the dull monotony of its right angles—the wide streets that throw such an immense space between your lodgings and any desired object—the want of all the cries I have been used to in all the popular cities I have frequented, except, indeed, the solitary halloo of a sweep, (and then only before one gets up in a morning) and the everlasting gong that wakes me from my sweetest slumber, and dreams of home, with all its indefinable attractions, I would say that Philadelphia was a very decent, orderly, well arranged, and handsome city. But give me Hogarth's line of beauty; I hate your everlasting parallels that run together to infinity, and never unite. By the way I am told that I shall be amply gratified in this respect in New York and Boston. There is only one street in this city, called Dock street, that is entitled to any claim to my fancy; and that is too broad, and nobody lives in it—all shops and warehouses.
The weather is remarkably fine,—every body complains of a want of rain:—for my part I must confess I had enough at home; and if I must find fault with the climate, it is too hot. Yet I do not find the lassitude I expected, consequent on exercise in the open air. Notwithstanding a mid-day sun, that in England we should have thought intolerable, a young gentleman with whom I formed an acquaintance at our excellent hotel, prevailed upon me to take a promenade along the Philadelphia Bond street, which here is denominated Chesnut street. We saw some mansions that would not have disgraced one of our fashionable squares;—some ladies that would have honoured the very first equipage that sports in Hyde Park. Only a few could boast of our Saxon complexion; but their forms were cast in a superior mould;—this I apprehend is aboriginal—and although I cannot learn that any are willing to acknowledge their derivation from the native Indians, several circumstances induce me to believe there has been a greater mixture with the first occupants of this vast continent than has been generally supposed. But more of this hereafter—if in my contemplated visit next summer to the falls of Niagara, I should meet with some of the deer skinned heroes and heroines of this western hemisphere. I have laid all those of the sock and buskin on the shelf, and am enthusiast enough to expect perfection among the savages of North America. Why should I not? Through all the obloquy that has been thrown upon them by their ruthless despoilers,
"More savage still than they,"
through all that inveteracy of feeling which those who injure universally entertain—and "they who injure never pardon," you may still find a confession, or rather an admission of their virtues and their talents, of their magnanimity of character, and their elevation of soul. Not merely that indifference to privation and bodily suffering which we have been taught, was characteristic of savage life, but in spite of the natural principle of retaliation and revenge, (and I will maintain that it is a natural principle) they have evinced that virtue which the Bible has never taught many of us who have had access to it—forgiveness of our enemies.
Do not, however, think that I have lost myself in the interminable forests which still remain to the original proprietors of this continent—or that I have assumed the rifle and the moccasin. I should even prefer taking up my residence in this place which you know we have always considered one of the advanced posts in the march of civilization. It is true I have not yet descended from the roofs as aforesaid, to see what kind of an animal a Philadelphian really is in his own family circle, and shall have to defer a picture of this non-descript till opportunity of observation occurs. I have as yet seen only the outside. I have seen the Pennsylvania hospital externally; I have seen the figure of old William Penn standing like a good old fashioned broad brimmed sentinel before the door of the edifice, like all sentries exposed to the wind and the weather, with his head as it were drooping over the fine hot-house plants that surround him. But a bronze statue of the old gentleman I must confess seemed rather outre, although he richly deserved an equipment in that same costume from the perseverance which history tells us he evinced in the strife with the bailiffs that beset him in our old island. But let that pass; I would consent to be surrounded by tipstaves all my life to leave such a character as he did behind.—I have seen the Academy of Fine Arts, most modestly retiring from public view, behind a range of buildings that some of the cits have unconscionably erected on the front of the street, thus clearly evincing their disposition, to use the words of my Chesnut street friend, to throw the fine arts in the back ground. By the way the good people here are said to be (by the New Yorkers at least) most intolerably given to punning, and I must admit that some of the gentlemen who attend our excellent ordinary, have put off a few attempts at that vile species of wit, of a most contemptible character. I should, however, be very sorry to pass an opinion on the whole genus by the few specimens I have seen. Philadelphia is really a very handsome city; yet to take a panoramic view of it, you would be exceedingly disappointed. There are no steeples, or rather there is one, and that a very decent one—the architecture of which is by no means contemptible; but then there is but one steeple in a city of upwards of fifteen thousand houses, principally constructed of brick. If there were only a standard or ensign appended to its spire, which is about 200 feet from the ground, and that standard in proportion to its height, this goodly town would look like one grand encampment. Few of the houses exceed three stories, of about ten or twelve feet each. The city is however, flanked by two shot towers, one in the southeast, the other in the northwestern extremity; which afford some relief to the dead uniformity in the general aspect of the town. How successful the proprietors of these said towers may have been in the pursuit of their vocation, I know not; but for ornament to this place, I would not give one steeple, like that which is bottomed in the good old diocesan episcopal church for a thousand of them.
You see I have obeyed the injunction laid on me at parting, to express every thing as it presented itself to my observation, but in nothing can you find more sincerity of feeling than when I assure you neither time nor distance has diminished the warmth of affection with which I continue to be your friend.
Of the actual state of Agriculture in Europe.
This is very different in different states, and even in different parts of the same state; its greater or less degree of perfection, depending on causes physical, or political, or both. Where a state, or part of a state, from soil, climate, manners, or geographical position, draws its principal subsistence from the fishery or the chase, as in the more northern parts of Europe, agriculture will not succeed; when a state is from any cause both essentially maritime or manufacturing, as in England, or principally manufacturing, as in Prussia; where public opinion has degraded manual labour, as in Spain, Portugal, and the Papal territory; or where laws villainize it, as in Russia, Prussia, Poland, Hungary, &c. &c. it is in vain to expect pre-eminent agriculture.—These principles will receive illustration as we go along.
1. In the Campania of Rome, where in the time of Pliny were counted twenty-three cities, the traveller is now astonished and depressed at the silence and desolation that surround him.—Even from Rome to Trescati, (four leagues of road the most frequented) we find only an arid plain, without trees, without meadows, natural or artificial, and without villages, or other habitation of man! Yet is this wretchedness not the fault of soil or climate, which (with little alteration) continue to be what they were in the days of Augustus. "Man is the only growth that dwindles here," and to his deficient or ill directed industry, are owing all the calamities of the scene. Instead of the hardy and masculine labours of the field; the successors of Cato and of Pliny employ themselves in fabricating sacred vases, hair powders and pomatums, artificial pearls, fiddle strings, embroidered gloves, and religious relics! They are also great collectors of pictures, statues, and medals—"dirty gods and coins," and find an ample reward in the ignorance and credulity of those who buy them.
2. How different from this picture is that of Tuscany! where the soil, though less fertile, is covered with grains, with vines, and with cattle; and where a surface of 1200 square leagues, subsists a population of nine hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants, of whom eighty thousand are agriculturists. It may amuse, if it does not instruct, the reader, to offer a few details of a husbandry, among the most distinguished of the present age. The plough of the north of Europe, as of this country, has the powers of a wedge, and acts perpendicularly; but that of Tuscany resembles a shovel, is eight or nine inches long, and nearly as broad, and cuts the earth horizontally. This instrument is particularly adapted to the loose and friable texture of the soil. A second plough, of the same shape, but of smaller size, follows that already described, and with the aid of the hoe and the spade, throws the earth, already broken and pulverised, into four feet ridges, or beds, on which the crop is sown. The furrows answer a threefold purpose; they drain the beds of excessive moisture, ventilate the growing crops, and supply paths for the weeders.
The rotation of crops, employs two periods of different length; the one of three, the other of five years. In the rotation of three years, the ground is sown five times, and in that of four years, seven times, as follows.
First year, wheat, and after wheat lupins.
Second year wheat, and after wheat turnips.
Third year, Indian corn or millet.
First year, wheat, and after wheat beans.
Second year, wheat, and after wheat lupins.
Third year, wheat, and after wheat lupinella: (annual clover.)
Fourth year, Indian corn, or millet.
In the Syanese Maremna, where the lands want neither repose or manure, the constant alternation is hemp and wheat, and the produce of the latter, often twenty-four bushels threshed, for one sown.
It will be seen from this course of crops, that the principal object of Tuscan agriculture, is wheat, of which they have two species, the one bald, the other bearded; both larger than the corresponding species in other countries of Europe; convertible into excellent bread and pastes, and probably but varieties of that Sicilian family, which Pliny describes, as yielding "most flour and least bran, and suffering no degradation from time." It is harvested about the middle of June and when the grain crop is secured, the ploughing for the second, or forage crop, begins; which besides lupins, lupinella, and beans, often consists of a mixture of lupins, turnips, and flax. The lupins ripen first and are gathered in autumn; the turnips are drawn in the winter and the flax in the spring.
Besides the application of ordinary manures, the lupin is ploughed down, when in flower; a practice that began with the Romans: Columella says, "of all leguminous vegetables, the lupin is that which most merits attention, because it costs least, employs least time and furnishes an excellent manure." The culture of this vegetable is different, according to the purposes for which it is raised; if for grain, the ground has two ploughings and twenty-five pounds weight of seed to a square of a hundred toises: if for manure, one ploughing is sufficient. Like our buckwheat, its vegetation is quick and its growth rapid; whence the farther advantage of suppressing, and even of destroying the weeds that would have infested any other crop. In the neighbourhood of Florence, they are in the practice of burning the soil; which they do by digging holes, filling them with faggots and raising the earth into mounds over them.—The faggots are then inflamed and burnt, and with them the incumbent earth, which is afterwards scattered, so as to give the whole field the same preparation.
3d. "The countries," says Arthur Young, "the most rich and flourishing of Europe, in proportion to their extent, are probably Piedmont and the Milanese. We there meet all the signs of prosperity—an active and well conditioned population, great exportations, considerable interior consumption, superb roads, many opulent towns, a ready and abundant circulation, the interest of money low, the price of labour high; in one word, it is impossible to cite a single fact that shews that Manchester, Birmingham, Rouen, and Lyons, are in a condition equally prosperous, as the whole of these Dutchies." Their population is stated at "1,114,000, and the territory at little more than two millions of arpents, (acres.) Wheat, rye, indian corn, flax and hemp, the vine and the olive, the caper and the cotton tree, with all kinds of garden fruits and vegetables, are cultivated here: the soil knows no repose, and much of it yields annually and uniformly two crops of grain, or three of grass." These are the miracles of irrigation; not a drop of water is lost. Besides the permanent supplies furnished from lakes, ponds, rivers, creeks and springs, even the winter torrent and summer shower, are every where intercepted by drains, and led to reservoirs; whence they are distributed at will to the neighbouring grounds.
In 1770, an agricultural school was established at Milan, consisting of 220 boys, who were instructed in theoretical and practical husbandry.—This institution has escaped the notice of travellers; and we are unable to say whether it has or has not, fulfilled the intentions of its projectors.
4. Switzerland has about 1444 square leagues of surface, and presents an assemblage of mountains, one rising above another, until the summits are lost in masses of snow and ice, which never melt. This short description sufficiently indicates the character of both the soil and the climate; yet unpropitious as these are, we find a population of 1242 inhabitants to each square league! "This is perhaps the country of the world, which presents the most happy effects of an industry always active and persevering. The traveller who climbs her mountains, is struck with admiration when he beholds vineyards and rich pastures in those places, which before appeared naked and barren rocks. The traces of the plough are perceived on the border of precipices, where the most savage animals do not pass without danger; in one word the inhabitants appear to have conquered all obstacles, whether arising from soil, position or climate and to have drawn abundance from territory, condemned by nature to perpetual sterility."
5. The classical reader will remember, that Spain was the garden of the Hesperides of the Roman writers; by which was meant the combinations of a fine climate, a rich soil and an active and intelligent agriculture. To this state of things, even the empire of the Goths was not fatal, and that of the Moors rendered it still more distinguished. In their hands, the plains of Valentia were cultivated throughout, with the utmost care and skill; and where their wheels, reservoirs, and drains of irrigation, yet remain, the soil continues to yield the richest and most abundant products. In Catalonia, Navarre, Galitia and the Austurias, many species of the ancient agriculture are yet in vigour, because "the leases are long, and the landlord cannot capriciously violate them." The same causes are followed by the same effects, in the three districts of Biscaya, Guiposcoa and Alava. "In running over these, every thing one finds is animated by the presence of liberty and industry; nothing can be more charming than the coasts, nothing more attractive than the culture of the vallies. Throughout the thirty leagues that separate Bedassod from Vittoria, every quarter of an hour we discover some well built village, or comfortable cottage."
How different is the aspect of the other provinces! In these, not more than two thirds of the earth are cultivated; and "it is not uncommon to travel eight and ten leagues together, without finding a trace of human industry. In the district of Badejoz alone, is a desert of twenty-six leagues in length and twelve in breadth. Ten of the fourteen leagues that traverse the duchy of Medina Sidonia, consist altogether of pasturage. There is no where a vestige of man; not an orchard, not a garden, not a ditch, not a cottage to be seen! The great proprietor appears to reign, like the lion in the desert, repulsing by his roaring all who would approach him. But, instead of human colonies, we encounter troops of horned cattle and of mares, wandering, self directed, over plains, to which the eye can discover no boundary or barrier, and which brings to one's recollection the days when the beasts shared with man the empire of the earth."
"Even when the plough is used, it is little more than a great knife fastened to a stick, that just scratches the surface. The grain is threshed by horses, or mules driven over it, of by means of a plank studded with nails or flint stones and drawn across it. With even this miserable culture, the land in Andalusia yields considerable crops; yet are the inhabitants too lazy or too few to gather them together. This is done by Galiegos, who are the labourers of Spain." We need scarcely remark, that in a state of agriculture like this, the peasantry cannot be either well fed or well clothed. "The mountaineers live principally upon roasted acorns and goats' milk, and those of the plain (from Barcelona to Malaga) on bread steeped with oil, and occasionally seasoned with vinegar."
It is wide of our object to examine the causes of the degradation of character, which marks the agriculture of Spain. Well informed writers have ascribed it to the expulsion of the Moors and Jews, to the weight of taxes and imposts, to the mesta or common right of pasturage, to the discovery of America and its consequences, to the effect of climate and the ill judged charity of bishops and convents, but principally to the great manorial grants and unequal division of the soil, which followed the conquest. "We often find six, eight, ten, and even fifteen leagues of extent belonging to one master. The nobility and clergy possess nearly the whole country. One third of Spain belongs to the families of Medina, Celi, D'Alva, De l'Infatado, D'Aceda, and to the archbishops, bishops and chapters of Toledo, Compostella, Valentia, Seville and Murcia. A great proportion of these lands remain untilled and untenanted, and those which are let in Cortijo or farms are double or treble the quantity that can be occupied in tillage."
6. The agriculture of Portugal, has been subjected to the same evils as that of Spain, to which may be superadded, her connexion with Great Britain; under whose policy she has become a raiser of fruit instead of grain.
7. France is probably the country of Europe, which most unites the great desiderata of an extended and profitable agriculture; fertility of soil, mildness of climate, a dense population, an enlightened government, and facility of exportation. Within her ancient limits, she boasts of a surface of more than one hundred and fifteen millions of arpents, and a population of twenty-two millions of inhabitants. The following tables will shew, in a compressed form, the nature of her soil, and the use to which it is put.
|Arpents or Acres.|
|Alluvial and other rich soil,||26,159,340|
|Substratum of clay with a slight|
|covering of sand—called|
|Granitic and other mountains||25,261,946|
|Lakes, marshes, wastes,||19,400,049|
From the average of a number of statistical tables made by the Abbe D'Expillyt and others, it appears that in 1777, the agriculture of France was sufficient for the subsistence of its inhabitants, and had a surplus to spare; and though it be universally admitted that her condition in this respect is not less prosperous now than it was then, still it cannot be dissembled that her husbandry has many defects.
1. A supposed resemblance between the earth and animals, gave rise to fallows; because men and horses required repose after labour, it was supposed that after cropping, the earth also required it. Faithful to this absurd analogy, the French landlord binds down his tenent by lease, not to crop the soil more than three years in four, which in effect is to consign to barrenness or weeds, one fourth of the whole arable land of France yearly!
2. There is not a sufficiently fixed, or steady proportion, between arable and pasture land.—The production of grain is the great object of culture—often with too little regard to the nature of the soil, and generally without any to its improvement. "Where pasturage is scanty, where natural meadows are bad, where artificial are rare, and root husbandry little extended, cattle cannot be either numerous or well conditioned; and as without these there can be no manure, so without manure there can be no abundance."
3. The land is generally worked by farmers, hired for that purpose, or by renters on short leases; which in neither case betters the condition of the soil; the one having no interest in improvements, and the other too small a one to justify any expense in making them.
4. A good rotation system, adapted to the soil and climate, is not absolutely unknown, and may be found even in whole districts (as in French Flanders) but much too rarely. We have seen wheat and fallows alternately for years; and wheat, rye, hemp, and rye, and many others equally ridiculous.
5. To the eye, more than one half of France is a common, without fences of any kind, excepting garden or park walls. Can there be order, economy and security, under such circumstances? Can the police and the gens d'armes be sufficient substitutes?
(To be continued.)
In that volume whose morality is as sound, as the religion, it inculcates is celestial; and which is in fact an inexhaustible source of human wisdom, as well as a pure and incorruptible fountain of divine light; we are taught to "despise not the day of small things."
How much better off than they are, would thousands of their countrymen be at this moment, had this injunction never failed of its proper effect upon their conduct! If they had constantly cherished it in their recollection and carried it into practice in their daily occupations. But to contemplate the past or the present is needless, if it be not with a view to awaken the soul not only to a proper train of reflection, but to a salutary system of practice for the future.
If we had not "despised the day of small things," and sought too eagerly after brilliant speculations and splendid fortunes, thousands of us might now be blessed with ease and competence, and still animated by a sober and useful spirit of industry, who are, on the contrary, plunged into embarrasment, stripped of our property, and paralyzed in our energies.
We began the world with fair prospects, and we thought, at the same time with firm resolutions not to blast them by seeking too eagerly after fairer ones; but man is rarely contented with what is simply good or bright; he must have something better and brighter. There is always some tree whose fruit is forbidden, or beyond his reach, but of which he cannot rest easy till he has tasted. He can never think of resting upon the clear declivity, whilst the "cloud-capped" summit is above him, veiling something which he has not seen, and which may be, as he is apt to imagine, a pleasing, a valuable or a wonderful discovery.
Thus it is that we always reject the good within our grasp, in the delusive hope of grasping something better beyond it; that we lose sight of the content and happiness which are to-day within our reach; and look to the morrow to bring forth that which will satisfy our desires, and cause us to rejoice in our existence. But the morrow comes, our anticipations are not realized, and we vainly regret that we had not enjoyed the day before, as we might have done, without trusting to a deceitful futurity.
We aim to inculcate moderation in the desire of wealth, or of any other acquisition which is supposed to contribute to human happiness, combined with a steady, industrious and persevering attention to the means of obtaining what we desire. To this end, we must not "despise the day of small things;" but must set out in every undertaking with a determination to take advantage of the most trivial, as well as the most important circumstance, calculated to favour our designs. We must watch with the eyes of an Argus for Opportunity, never forgetting, that she is bald behind, and must therefore be caught by the forelock, if caught at all. When once she turns her back upon us, she is soon out of sight, and we vainly attempt to overtake her. She mocks at our folly, and leaves us to brood, in hopeless amazement, over our own blindness and imbecility.
But who are they that "despise the day of small things?" They are too numerous for description in a brief essay; but we shall point out a few, and leave the reader's imagination to enlarge the catalogue.
The MECHANIC who puts off a small job, as unworthy of his attention, because he happens to have a larger one on hand; without stopping to reflect, that small streams are more numerous than large ones; that the former continually supply the latter; and that by a steady succession of small jobs, he may acquire a capital to execute large ones upon his own account.
The MERCHANT who will sit behind his counter with a segar in his mouth, and think it derogatory to his dignity to reply to a demand for a shilling's worth of any thing. Such "small things" are too insignificant for this man of smoke; and consequently when those who call for them, and find themselves neglected, have occasion to make a large purchase, they go to him, who will not only lay down his segar, but leave his dinner, if required to wait upon them in ever so small a way.
The PHYSICIAN, who passes by the the poor man's door hardly stopping to give a hasty prescription, although he never fails to loiter in the sick rooms of the rich and the powerful, till his sycophancy becomes as disgusting to the mind, as his medicine is nauseating to the stomach of his patient.
The LAWYER who turns a deaf ear to an honest client with but five dollars in his pocket; but is quick of hearing when accosted by a party with a fifty dollar bill, and not over scrupulous either about the justice of the cause.
The CLERGYMAN—and what shall we say of the Clergyman, who "despises the day of small things;" who forsakes and forgets the poor, but pious flock, which first cherished him, to gratify his pride and ambition, and acquire those robes and riches which moths may corrupt and thieves may steal; and who is so eager withal to make converts, that he does not stop to be satisfied that conversion is the offspring of conviction, forgetting how much joy there is in Heaven over one sinner that truly repenteth; and that the hope of the hypocrite shall perish for-ever!
The FARMER who clears more land than he can cultivate to advantage, destroying the present and preventing the future growth of timber to no purpose; who keeps his produce on hand, when he can get a good and saving price, in hopes it may rise; who sells it at last for less than he could have had at first; and who is not as grateful to God for a scanty harvest, as he is for a plentiful one.
We might enlarge the catalogue of those, who, by "despising the day of small things," never arrive at that of great ones; but we do not wish to tire the reader with a tedious essay, when a light and pleasant one is our aim.
There is, however, one precious delinquent, in whose soul we would gladly awaken those moral energies which alone can save it from eventual ruin; from the tortures of self condemnation, the contempt of mankind, and the horrors of despair.
We mean the YOUNG STUDENT of GENIUS, who consumes the vigour of his youth in the haunts of vice and infamy—who despises the minutia of his profession, whatever it may be, and wantonly neglects his daily studies for the present, in pursuit of pleasure, intending, perhaps, to make great and rapid strides at a future time—but when that time arrives may find his former neglect and dissipation have destroyed the energies of his mind, and left it like a sieve, incapable of containing any thing but dregs! In this case the ruin is indeed a melancholy one; for instead of being "led, through paths of glory, to the grave," the stews and the state prison are too often the pathways of such a youth to that closing scene; and his hic jacet may be found, if found at all, in the Potter's field, that last receptacle of the dregs of humanity! Think of this, ye giddy, ye thoughtless young men, who are squandering your precious moments in idleness and vice, dishonouring yourselves, disgusting your friends, disappointing the expectations of your country, breaking the hearts of your fond parents, and bringing their "grey hairs with sorrow to the grave!" How bitter will be your feelings, when you are driven to reflect, as you finally must be, and perhaps at the foot of the gallows, that by your folly and wickedness, you have not only sealed your own ruin, but madly
Many of those giddy young men, to whom these remarks apply, may perhaps sneer at the idea of being brought up at last, in their mad career, by the arm of the public executioner. But let them turn, in some hour of solitude, if such hours ever bless them with the sweets of calm reflection, to the pages of the Criminal Recorder! They will there find, that from George Barnwell, down to James Hamilton, those who have died upon the gallows have not always plunged at once into the depths of depravity; but have gone on, step by step, from slight deviations to serious ones, till they have lost all sense of shame, and become rebels to God as well as man. In this degraded state of their souls, they have not stopt at the brothel, the cock-pit, or the gambling table; but urged by the demons of hell, they have wantonly seized the dagger of assassination, and bathed it in the blood of innocence! thus closing their criminal career by a deed of desperation.
H. H. jr.
On a Rotation of Crops, and the most profitable mode of collecting, preserving, and applying Manures.
(Communicated to the Albany County Agricultural Society.)
In the spring of the third year, we propose to sow the ground with barley, after two or three ploughings—seed, two and a half bushels to the acre. At the same time also, give the ground at least 12 pounds of red clover seed to the acre, which may be carefully mixed with the barley, and sown together. Harrow the ground before sowing, and harrow in the seed, after it has been prepared in the manner before directed; then, if the farmer is in possession of the roller, let this be passed over the ground, particularly if it be somewhat dry; for, in such case, barley, being covered with a husk, requires a close envelopement with earth, in order that the progress of its germination be not either partially or wholly retarded. Next spring give the ground a top dressing of gypsum, of from one to two bushels to the acre, as circumstances may seem to require.—Two clover crops are to be expected this season. The next, either one or two may be taken, according to the climate, but usually one only in more northerly regions; and in this case let the second growth be laid prostrate, by the roller passing over it in the same direction in which the plough is to follow, in order that the growth may be carefully turned under, which will form an excellent lay for winter wheat, or for rye, if the climate is not adapted to the growth of the former crop. In suitable climates, wheat will succeed on a good clover lay even on light sandy lands. It is believed, however, that the species of wheat which is considerably cultivated in Pennsylvania, called spelt, (triticum spelta) may be successfully cultivated in any part of the northern states where wheat of the common sorts do not flourish.—When the sward has thus been turned under, let the surface be levelled by running the harrow lightly over it, in the same direction in which the plough runs, and then cover the seed with the harrow, run in a similar direction. Let the seed wheat be prepared in the manner before described, and let it be free from any mixture of rye, or the seeds of cockle, or other weeds. Next spring give the ground another top dressing of gypsum, in order that a growth of white clover may rise after harvest, as this will afford considerable fall feed, and a fresh sward to be turned under in the latter part of the fall, the effect of which will be explained when speaking of manures, &c.
Thus our rotation requires six seasons for its completion, and is composed of six or more different and successive crops. In exhibiting our plan, we intend it merely as an outline of what we deem at least one of the best and most profitable systems of culture that can be pursued in good arable lands, where all obstructions to the most complete culture have been removed.—Other courses may probably be devised which may be as good, but we feel confident there can be none better. We consider this rotation as comprehending a sufficient variety of crops for every purpose of affording the land rest by changes; and although a course of rotation might be made to include a greater variety of crops, still the profits of them in the aggregate, would probably be less than in the plan we propose. We insist much on the culture of root crops for the greatest possible profits. In some instances the growths of roots and vines we propose, as well as of the grain crops, might be substituted for others, and sometimes, for the sake of further variety of growths, particularly of roots, it might be advisable; all this must, however, depend on the soil, and on other circumstances. If the soil be rich and deep, perhaps the mangel wurzel, should have a preference to the common turnip, and the pumpkin, in the first years crop, and perhaps in such soil the cabbage culture should sometimes come in for a share.
We should hardly advise that crops of carrots or of parsnips should ever enter the list of a general rotation of crops, as they require peculiar soils, and uncommon preparation. They are very valuable crops for particular purposes, but their uses for feeding and fatting cattle seem to be in a great measure superseded by the less expensive culture of the crops before-mentioned. There are, however some mellow fertile soils, of sandy texture, where these roots, particularly carrots, may be cultivated with great advantage. A very serious objection to the culture of parsnips is, that in the soils most suitable for them they extend so deeply that their extraction from the earth is a matter of no small difficulty.
In recommending the alternate culture of the pumpkin with the corn crop, we have been influenced by two considerations; firstly, from an account we have lately seen of a trial made of the culture of the large sort of pumpkin by itself, in which at the rate of 25 tons to the acre were raised; and, secondly we are of opinion that in cultivating the crop in the way we propose, nearly as great a product may be obtained as if the ground were planted entirely with this crop.—Growing in drills by itself it will not impede the growth of the corn, nor do we conceive that this crop will be injured by the extension of the pumpkin vines over the ground; whereas if the two crops were planted together in the same hills, or drills, as is commonly practised, the growth of the one must, in a great measure, serve to rob the other of its due share of nutriment. The large sort of pumpkin, to which we have reference, has been raised of the weight of upwards of 150 pounds, but it is probably less nutritious, because less sweet, than pumpkins of the common sorts. Another large sort, which we have seen exhibited in this county, of more than four feet in length, is probably entitled to a preference for culture, as it appears to be as sweet as pumpkins of the smaller kinds.
In selecting seed for the pumpkin crop, take such plants as bear the greatest weight of pumpkins, and from the largest of these let the seed be preserved.
We have next to speak of the rotations proper for clayey lands, or those which have more or less alumin in their composition. Lands of this description are various, as well in regard to their natural fertility, as to their being more or less inclined to a superabundance of moisture. Some are naturally too wet for cultivating even grain crops with success, and should therefore be kept for mowing and grazing lands. Some again may be merely too wet for crops of winter grain, and in such case spring crops should be substituted, while at the same time the lands should be more applied to the business of the dairy, and of the grazier. In the mean time, let the possessor of lands which are naturally too wet, proceed to laying at least a part of them dry, by hollow drains; and then by making his barn dung principally into heaps of compost, in which lime and sand shall be considerably used as additional ingredients, and applying such compost manure to the drilled crops before-mentioned, and in the manner before directed, he will find no difficulty whatever in pursuing the course of crops we have recommended, nor of raising them of luxuriant growth. Where clayey lands are naturally dry enough for winter crops, we advise to a similar course of crops, with the manure prepared and used in a similar manner. In all stiff soils, however, an important point in husbandry, is to keep the ground, while under a course of crops, in a mellow crumbly state; and for this purpose nothing is more conducive than frequent deep ploughings, and raising the ground into high narrow ridges, as well to lie in that state during winter, as for the culture of all the drilled crops in particular. The ridges are to be formed by four gathering furrows, and in cleaving the ridges down new ones are formed with the middle or highest part of each where the last furrows were of the former ridges. When, therefore, the manure is to be used for the drilled crop, it is to be laid in the furrows, between the ridges, and then covered over with two gathering furrows run on each side, and thus the beds or ridges for the crop prepared.
If, however, it should still be found that some clays, even with this management for the purpose of ameliorating them, should still be found unsuitable for Indian corn, and for the turnip and ruta baga crops, we can only advise that, for the former, the Windsor bean, and for the two latter the mangle wurzel and the cabbage crop, be made substitutes. The Windsor bean is considerably cultivated in the clay lands of Great Britain; and Mr. Deane, in his Farmer's Dictionary, says its growth on such lands in this country is luxuriant. Perhaps in place of this species of the bean, another, which is cultivated in the southern states, and is there called the cow pea, should be prefered.
It should be further observed, that gypsum, when applied as a top dressing to clay lands, particularly those which are too wet, has but very little effect; but when they are laid dry by hollow drains, and thrown into ridges as before-mentioned, the effect of this manure upon them is nearly the same as in other dry arable lands.—And as we conceive it essentially necessary that all clay lands which are to be cultivated for spring crops, as well as all other soils which are naturally too wet, should lie in ridges during the winter, we advise that, at the beginning of the rotation we have mentioned, such lands have a second ploughing in the fall, for the purpose of being laid in such ridges. When thus laid they are easily reduced to a mellow state in the spring; but if this be neglected, they will usually be found, more or less, in hard baked clods, a state very unfit for good cultivation.
In Great Britain it is found essentially requisite that clay lands should be effectually summer fallowed as often as every sixth year; as well for the purpose of extirpating growths of weeds, as for mellowing the soil, and rendering it more lively. A fallowing there is performed by many repeated ploughings and harrowings during the summer. But it should be remembered that the climate of that country is very different from this. Their wheat harvest is in autumn, their summers being wet and cool. Here we have time after the harvest is over to cleanse and enliven the soil by repeated ploughings and harrowings.
On hard gravelly lands, which are unfit for any crops of roots, except perhaps potatoes, no very extensive rotation can be had to advantage without plentiful manuring. Gypsum has a powerful effect on such lands, and with the aid of this manure alone even the poorest of gravels may be made to yield good crops of buckwheat and of red clover; and on a lay of this latter crop turned under, a tolerable good crop of rye may be had. St. Foin, and some other tap rooted grasses, flourish in such soils better than might be expected. Gravelly lands require very deep and frequent ploughings, in order to make them sufficiently retentive of moisture. They are usually much assisted by compost manures where clay, mud, upland marl, &c. form a considerable share of the ingredients. But as there are different degrees of fertility in gravelly lands, according to the nature of the gravel, and its greater or less predominance in the soil, we can lay down no definite course of crops that in all cases would be found most advisable. Say, however, that with effectual deep ploughings, and plenty of suitable manure for the drills, the first crop shall be Indian corn, intermixed with the potato and the pumpkin growths, as before-mentioned; next spring, oats, or barley, if the ground will answer for this crop. As soon as this crop comes off, turn the stubble under, and harrow in buckwheat for a green dressing, in the manner mentioned in treating of manures, and on this growth, turned under, sow rye, if the ground is too gravelly for wheat. Sow the clover seed the next spring, in the quantity before-mentioned, and then harrow the ground, which will serve the purpose of covering the seed, and also of assisting the growth of the crop of wheat, or rye, as the case may be. The advantage derived from harrowing these crops in the spring has been well ascertained by experiment. After the second year's growth of clover has been fed or mowed off, turn over the ground in the fall to commence the rotation anew.
When we speak of gravelly lands, we do not mean to include those which are, properly speaking gravelly loams; for soils of this description are generally well fitted for the rotation first mentioned. By gravelly lands we mean those where gravel is mostly predominant, as we call those lands sandy where silex forms the greatest proportion of the soil, and of these something is now to be said.
As a specimen of what may be called light sandy lands we will refer to much of those lying between Albany and Schenectady. These, like the gravelly lands just mentioned, are not, in their natural state, calculated for the production of many different crops in perfection, nor indeed for any without manure. With the aid of gypsum alone, however, good crops of peas, and of buckwheat, may be had on most of these lands, tolerable of red clover, and on the lay of clover turned under, middling crops of rye may be had. Probably, with this manure, valuable crops of pumpkins might be raised on them. Lands of this description have, however, very essential properties, which gravelly lands do not possess; they are much easier cultivated than the harder soils, and, in proportion to their natural fertility, no lands are better adapted for root crops of almost every sort, or for the grasses whose roots extend deep into the earth, among which are clover of different kinds, St. Foin, Lucerne, &c.—Such lands are least adapted for crops of wheat and Indian corn; but when sufficiently manured with clay, or upland marle, which is better, they will yield tolerable crops of the latter, and also of the former, when raised on a lay of red clover.
Where little else than the contents of the barn yard and gypsum can be had for manuring sandy lands of the above description, the common turnip and ruta baga culture would not, perhaps, be advisable, but the rotation should be something like the following: First year, potatoes and pumpkins in alternate drills, manured and treated as before described; second, peas, soaked in the solution before-mentioned, and rolled in gypsum before sowing, with a top dressing of that manure; third, buckwheat, treated in the same manner, and clover seed sown with the crop; third and fourth, clover, with a top dressing of gypsum each spring; fifth, rye, on the clover turned under, as before described, which completes the course.
But where upland marle, or even clay, can be had, for the purpose of forming compost manures with the barn dung and the addition of some lime, as is described under manures, &c. we should advise to the rotation first described, or something similar, in which the root crops should form a prominent part; and in such case, let the manure be plentifully applied to the drilled crops. At first, perhaps, some of the crops would not be so abundant; but under this management the soil would be constantly improving, and of course the crops increasing. At first, perhaps, rye should be substituted for the wheat crop, but each addition to the soil of the caluminous and calcarious matter, of which the compost is principally composed, would render the land better adapted for grain crops of every description.
It is a matter of the first importance to the cultivator to possess an adequate knowledge of the different substances which may be used with advantage for fertilizing his land, of the different soils to which such substances are best adapted, of the proper quantities to be used, and of the most advantageous time and manner of their application. There is but little even of the richest earths that will not become exhausted with constant cropping without manure; and soils are seldom so sterile, but that with a proper application of suitable manures to them, they may be made the residence of plenty.
Manures are of different kinds: of animal, of vegetable, of fossil, and of mixed; of each of which notice will be taken in their order.
The flesh of animals is an excellent manure for all soils, and is used to a considerable extent on the sea coast, where fish are caught in plenty. It is believed that flesh is used to most advantage in composts, and the same may be observed with more certainty in regard to the use of the blood. The shavings of the horney substances of animals, have very desirable effects as a manure, in dry soil, by enduing such with a greater power to retain moisture: and the same may also be observed of the hair and wool. The bones, when calcined, are also valuable, as they are principally phosphate of lime. The miasma, produced by the putrefaction of the flesh and blood of animals, is also food for plants, or at least its presence assists their growth. The urine is a fertilizer principally by reason of the salt it contains, and probably also by its producing miasma.
When animals die, it is usual to let them lie above ground, to the annoyance of the public; but, if covered with earth, this together with the flesh, &c. of the animal, would be converted into good manure.
Of vegetable substances, it may be generally observed, that almost every sort of vegetable, not of woody texture, buried in the soil while green, is more or less efficacious as a manure; and that many sorts of these, when turned under where they grew, and while in a green state, will add much more fertility to the soil than their growth extracted from it; but that the same growth, when suffered to ripen on the ground, and then turned under, after the exhaustion of its juices, will not generally repay the soil the nutriment it extracted from it while growing. It would seem that the ripening of plants is the principal cause of the exhaustion of soils, and, for this reason, green dressings, that is, ploughing of green crops under, has been found advantageous in enriching lands. Where green dressings are resorted to, as a manure, such growth should be selected for the purpose as are cheap in the article of seed, and at the same time quick and bulky in their growths. Buckwheat has been much used for the purpose, though perhaps some other plants should be preferred. The growth should be turned under when in blossom; and, in order that this be done effectually, it should be laid prostrate, by running the roller over it, in the same direction in which the plough is to follow; after which, the ground should not be stirred again till this manure has sufficiently rotted. Generally, we think it would be most advisable to sow on the lay or furrow, by which the green crop is turned under.
There may be some instances where manuring with green dressings may be advisable, particularly where it can be done without preventing the growth of any intervening crop: Where this is not practicable, we should hardly advise to this method of manuring, unless in cases where other manures were not to be obtained. One case we will however mention, where a green dressing might be given to advantage. Suppose, for instance, a crop of rye, oats, or barley, harvested, and the ground cleared of the crop by the 20th of July; in that case, let the stubble be immediately turned under, and the ground harrowed in with buckwheat; by the 20th of September this growth would be fit to be turned under, when a crop of wheat might be sown on the lay. It should be understood, that rye is one of the best crops to precede a crop of wheat, or to follow it. In the same manner, therefore, the crop for a green dressing may be raised in the wheat stubble turned under, and the green crop turned under for a crop of rye.
But the contents of the barn-yard, and the excrements of cattle, are the principal sources of manure of the vegetable kind; and of these it is necessary to treat particularly, as well of the qualities of the different sorts, as of their most advantageous applications to soils. The sorts of dung or excrement to be noticed, are those of horses, neat cattle, sheep, and swine. The dung of swine is most valuable, where properly applied; that of sheep is the next; that of cows ranges in the third degree, and that of horses in the fourth. The dung of the latter, if suffered to lie in a heap till it becomes thoroughly heated, assumes a white, or mouldy colour, and is then of but little value. It is of a warm nature, and is best adapted for being well buried in moist or clayey soils; cow dung on the contrary, is most suitable for dry soils; sheep dung answers best on the soils for which that of horses is best suited, but is very valuable for almost any soil. Hog dung should only be applied to dry arable lands, and is most powerful in those of a sandy or gravelly nature. Dung, of all sorts, loses much of its valuable qualities by exposure to frequent rains, particularly when lying at but little depth over a considerable surface. Its good qualities are best preserved by lying in large heaps, and if under cover so much the better. The stercorary is the most effectual method for preserving barn dung, and it is believed that every farmer will find his money well expended in the erection of this receptacle for the contents of that part of his barn-yard, which is not used in the spring. The stercorary may serve for a sheep fold during winter, and will thus answer a two fold purpose. It may be, for instance, 40 feet in length, 16 in breadth, and of suitable height. The floor is to be made of a layer of clay, with the surface smoothly paved with small stones, and highest in the middle, so that the juices of the dung may run off to the sides, where a gutter receives this liquid, and carried it into a reservoir, sunk at one end, into which a pump is to be fixed to raise the liquid and throw it back over the heap. The floor, gutter, and reservoir, are on a plan similar to those of a cider press. The liquid that runs from the heap is the most valuable part, and should never be lost: this plan is therefore calculated to preserve it; and, for the purpose of absorbing the whole of it, any dry vegetable matter, or rich earth, may be laid over the heap, and this liquid thrown on that, which will serve to convert the whole into good manure. The juices and the soluble and gaseous parts of the excrements of cattle, together with the stale, are what principally affords nutriment for growing plants; and every means by which these can be saved, by their being absorbed in other substances, of rich earthy or vegetable matter, would seem to be well worthy of attention. We will next designate what is usually considered the methods most proper for the application of dung.
Where lands are in grasses of the fibrous rooted kinds, it is the generally received opinion of the best cultivators, that barn dung, as well as every other kind, should be applied as a top dressing, that is, by spreading it on the surface; but that for tap rooted grasses, or those whose roots extend deeply, as well as for all grain and root crops, this manure should be buried in the soil, at such depths as are best suited to the nature of the roots of the plants to be cultivated. The operation of barn dung, and of all vegetable and animal substances used in manure, seems to be this: If laid at a certain depth beneath the surface of the soil, in the progress of their decomposition their soluble parts pass into the form of gas, or vapour, and of course rise to the surface, and in their ascent are more or less absorbed by the roots of the plants; on the contrary, if these manures be laid on the surface, these soluble parts, in the progress of decomposition, never become aeriform, but are washed downwards, in their liquid state, where they are in like manner absorbed by the roots of the plants. This is probably as correct an explanation as can be given of the effect of these manures. It is well known, that ground long used as a graveyard, becomes very fertile, notwithstanding the substances which are the cause of such fertility, are laid at a very great depth.
It has been held by some English writers that barn dung should be well rotted previous to its application as a manure, but this opinion is rejected by Sir Humphrey Davy, one of the most scientific agriculturists of Great Britain, and also by Arthur Young, Esq. Mr. Davy contends that this manure may in most instances be as well applied fresh as in any other way, by its being laid at a proper depth beneath the surface, and that in scarcely any instance it is advisable that it should undergo more than the first stage of decomposition before it is used. When well rotted it is, however, more efficacious for a single crop, but its use is of much shorter duration. It seems, also, to be generally agreed that using this manure for drill crops, burying it at a good depth, and raising the plants over the dung thus buried, is the best possible way in which it can be used. We lately saw an account published of upwards of 100 bushels of Indian corn to the acre being raised by this mode of culture. The success of Mr. Cobbett, and others, in raising great crops of ruta baga by this method of using this manure, seems to demonstrate its utility, if evidence was wanting further than what appears in English publications on the subject.
The plan that we would therefore recommend, is, to apply the fresh barn dung to all drill crops which are to be put in the ground in the spring, and for these we refer to what has been said under rotation of crops. The shortest dung should be used for these purposes, except for potatoes, and it should, as far as practicable, be applied to the soils best adapted for each kind of dung, as has before been mentioned. The longer or more strawey parts of the dung we should advise to be laid in the stercorary, if this building has been provided, or else somewhere under cover; or if no cover can be afforded, let it be thrown into a heap about 3 or 4 feet high; and wherever it be laid let it be stirred up from the bottom in the course of about five or six weeks after it has thus been heaped or otherwise stored away, after which it will soon be found well fitted for being used for the crop of ruta baga. It is also advisable to cover the heap with a layer of good earth, which will serve to absorb and retain much of the steam or gaseous matter that rises from the heap, and when saturated with this, and mixed with the mass of dung, will be found a valuable addition.
(To be continued.)
On the Grape Vine, with its wines, brandies, and dried fruits.
No principle of action in the business and industry of the United States has been so beneficial to them as the adoption of new objects of culture by the planters and farmers, whose old objects of culture were likely to become redundant, and to fall in price. Cotton and sugar are well known and important examples. There are good grounds for estimating our whole cotton of our best year, (Sept. 1817, to Sept. 1818,) at forty-two millions of dollars, according to the price on the wharves of our sea-ports for that which was exported to foreign countries, and the price at our factories, stores, and dwellings, of that which was manufactured at home. It is now manifest that the East Indian and South American cotton greatly injure our markets; and as this arises from growing, permanent, and substantial causes, there is reason to expect the continuance of the injury to us from the foreign rival cotton cultivation. A brief and plain view of the history and prospect of cotton, will be found in the Philadelphia edition (A.D. 1818) of Rees' English Cyclopædia, by Murray, Bradford & Co. under the article or head of the "United States." The facts there stated, with many known subsequent circumstances, will give rise to serious reflections, in the minds of the landholder and the statesman, upon the subject of the protection of the productions of our own soil. The industry of the landed men of the United States is manifestly and unalterably much greater than any, and than all, the other branches of our domestic or national industry. The mercantile and manufacturing branches result almost entirely from the landed industry. While, therefore, the legislative and executive governments raise revenues of 271⁄2 to 60 per cent. on a great quantity of foreign cotton cloths from India and Europe, and a greater revenue from the foreign manufactures of tobacco, and a still greater revenue from the foreign manufactures of grain, of fruit, and of the cane, to the great fundamental and convenient support of American manufactures, and while they are free to go further, if they find it right, in the joint encouragement of our agricultural and manufacturing industry it will be found beneficial to the landed interest to inquire into other means of promoting the prosperity of the Colossus of our country—the agricultural industry.
There can be no doubt that, between the sites of the vineyards of the Lower Schuylkill, Southwark, of Pennsylvania, Butler, of Pennsylvania, Glasgow, of Kentucky, New Vevay, of Indiana, and Harmony, of the same state, on the north, and the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico, on the south, the United States possess the climates and soils of "the vine-covered hills and gay regions of France." The sweet orange grows, in safety, in groves and gardens, in the vicinity of New Orleans, at a greater distance from the sea than any place of equally safe growth, in Provence or Languedoc, of France. As our country shall be cleared and drained, our climate will be still less severe in the states on the Mexican gulf. In the north, our climates of New Vevay and Harmony, in Indiana, Glasgow, in Kentucky, 37° to 38° 30' N. which are the present northern extremes of successful experiments in the vine cultivation, are as favourable and mild as the climates of Champagne, Tokay, Lorraine, Burgundy, and Hockheim, which are fine northern regions of the vine in France and Germany. Between our New Vevay, in Indiana, and the Gulf of Mexico, the states of Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, South and North Carolina, Tennessee, Indiana, and large parts of Virginia and Kentucky, must give us all the vine climates of France, Germany, Switzerland, and Upper Italy. This vine district of the United States is much larger than all those vine countries of France, Germany, Switzerland, and Upper Italy. The crop of wine and brandy in the vine country of France alone—though our vine country is more than twice the size—has been estimated at 100 millions of dollars. Let us then consider the propriety of a diligent inquiry into the cultivation of the vine, and the preparation of wines, brandies, dried fruits, and cremor tartar, in the United States, in order to maintain the prosperity of the landed interest by the variety and prices of our crops.
The present duties on foreign distilled and fermented spirits and liquors, (brandy, gin, rum, arack, wines, beer, ale, and porter,) and on dried fruits, though laid for revenue, afford a great and sure encouragement to the establishment and the manufacture of the grape. The demand will increase with our population, and the facility and certainty of the culture and crop will grow with the clearing and draining of our country. Ridges, hills, mountains, rocky lands, any steep ground, gravelly, stony, sandy, and other inferior lands, (if only dry,) will yield profit in large crops or in fine qualities of wine, or both. Fresh and dried grapes are both favourable to health and frugality. Ripe grapes have been administered to whole regiments of troops in France, who have been ravaged by fluxes and dysentaries. The quantity of wine computed to be produced in France, is ten millions of casks, of nearly 63 gallons each, on two millions of arpents (not 2,000,000 acres) of land, often not fit for wheat, rice, or tobacco, valued very low, on a medium at fifty francs the cask or French hogsheads. This is three times the value of the cotton crop of the U. States, on a medium value, produced in 1818 or in 1819, and demands our early and serious attention, particularly from the Gulf of Mexico to the end of the 39th degree, when the country in that degree shall be cleared and drained in its wet or marshy parts.
It has been already observed, that ridges and hills are the most suitable shape or form of country for vineyards. The most proper exposure is from south-east to south. It is believed that all southern exposures will do. The propagation may be by seeds, or by cuttings, or by bending and covering a part of an old vine so as to make it grow out in another place at a proper distance. The plough is of much use in the cultivation, so that care must be taken to plant the vines at such distances as to facilitate the use of the plough and the harrow. The best grapes which can be obtained should be used, in order to put the culture forward. These may be foreign or American, native or imported. A harsh grape to the taste may produce a better wine than was expected, and more and better brandy. The finest grapes of Europe and the African isles are supposed to be native wildings improved by culture and selection. The region of the plum and peach appears to include the region of the vine. Although the south is the proper sphere of the grape, its cultivation there will leave the bread grains, tobacco, hemp, the grasses and cattle, to the more exclusive and profitable culture of the states north of the proper region of fine and abundant crops of wine. We pay annually to foreign nations a sum of money for wines, spirits, and materials to make spirits, and for fresh and dried grapes, as great as our whole specie medium. So important is this subject, in various points of view, to all the states, that it is respectfully recommended to the superintendants of all our public, agricultural, and philosophical libraries, to procure all the treatises on the culture of vines and making of grapes which are to be found in the languages of France, Germany, Spain, Italy, and Great Britain.
The experiments made at Harmony in Pennsylvania, at Vevay, on the Ohio, and Harmony, on the Ouabache, both in Indiana, merit the utmost attention of the United States. It appears that in the present uncleared and uncultivated state of the country, Harmony, on the Ohio, in Penn. was probably too far north for making wine, though not for fruit. That Vevay and Harmony, in Indiana, are more suitable climes for the wines, will appear from the following letter from a respectable gentleman at Vevay to a very respectable friend of his, lately on a visit to Philadelphia. It is dated the 28th of August, 1819. The intelligent and experienced writer from Vevay, thus expresses himself: He "thinks the whole of Alabama doubtless better adapted to the culture of vines than the more northern country of the United States; because the only two species of grapes that succeed in the United States are of the late sort, having not time at Vevay, (Ind.) to ripen. The Alabama season, being longer, will give more time, especially the Madeira grape, which gives the best wine of the two, where it can ripen and yields most. But it will not do at all at Vevay; and does better at Glasgow, Ky. The various gardeners at Kentucky can furnish some. Vine dressers would go to new vineyards from Vevay. They have had 500 gallons of wine per acre at Vevay; more often 150; and 260 is a good crop. The Madeira grape would give more than the Cape of Good Hope grape, where it would prosper, but must have time to ripen, to be good. Of the labour, much may be done by women. They do about half. The men trim, make layers to fill vacancies, plough, harrow, hoe, and carry the grapes, and make the wine. None of those works are heavy. But trimming requires attention and discernment, for the vine-dresser must look two years before him, when he cuts each scion; women never do it, though light work. He has seen many women do it as well as any man. A little work in vineyards is to be done by night with lamps. When the grapes have got their size, the crickets, (not of the house or field) eat, in the night, the bark of the stem of the bunches, and ring or girdle them so that they die. They injure the bunches rapidly. They must be watched and searched for with lamps, by night, and destroyed. He says the native vines will not do to graft good kinds of grapes on: he has tried it often, without success. Grape vines grafted on the same kinds do well, yet they are a different tree, being dioic, while the vineferous kinds are hermaphrodites. I have found the same wild vines in Switzerland, and the kind called sour grapes makes pretty good wines; but are a smaller bearer than the grape vines. They are in Morerod's vineyard, at Glasgow, Kentucky. The Spanish grapes of Mexico and South America should be tried. They have been long cultivated. He is raising grape vines from the seed, to obtain flavour and quantity of wine. The vine is of long life, but it is ten or fifteen years before it bears fully from the seed. Variety, however, is an object. Vines planted by cuttings, which have taken root freely in the first year, bear fruit in three years: in five they are in full force. He has considered and inspected the vineyards of Europe, and the cultivation by the plough and otherwise. It is to be studied to save labour and make the greatest crops. If the fendant vert will grow as well here as in Switzerland, 800 gallons per acre might be made. They cultivate by the plough in Languedoc, about Montpelier and Lunel. We make wine here to be like Madeira, and sell it at 371⁄2 cents per quart, and $1 25 per gallon; but cannot make enough to send abroad, or to keep for ripening. Morerod made a cask of 800 gallons, full of wine, of last vintage, to be kept eighteen months or two years. He has seen wine (made of grapes like Vevay) at Glasgow, (in Barren county, Kentucky,) better than Vevay wine. The grapes were gathered a fortnight before the Vevay grapes. It is probable that wine of the banks of Tennessee will make 1-4 brandy; if of Cape of Good Hope grapes, common proof; Vevay yielded 1-5th; the best cider 1-10th; so do the best Burgundy wine, and that of the border of the lake of Geneva, in good years. The strongest of all the wines that I know of, is that of the south of France and Spain, which yields 1-3d brandy. The peculiar mode of vine cultivation at Vevay, Indiana, is worthy of attention, being a combination of various European modes, and American improvements adapted to the country. Some young men, bred at Vevay, would be useful in other places. Mr. D. thinks the blacks may be taught to cultivate vines." So runs and concludes the letter from the judicious writer, at Vevay of the United States, settled by persons from the original Vevay of Switzerland. It is very instructive and would seem to prove, as so much of our country continues in the wood and forest state, and with many undrained swamps, making a humid atmosphere, and a moist soil. Vevay, in 38° 30', is not yet perfectly so favourable, as the vicinity of Glasgow, in Kentucky, where a dry, hard soil, occasions the grape to be freer from injury by moisture of the earth, and of the air. Glasgow is about one degree and one half more southern than Vevay. These indications are distinct, nice, clear, and strong in regard to the vine climate of our country, at present and in prospect.
In the hilly Spanish colonial country of North America, about the 29th degree of north latitude, south of the Rio bravo del Norte, there is authentic evidence, in a report to the government, that the vine grows well, though its culture was forbidden by the crown, produces good crops of fine wine, and supplies the province and its neighbours. That country being as far south as any part of the Floridas, it is ascertained that, where this country has become, or shall be made dry enough and cleared, the vine region runs to the southern limits of the United States, even if we should maintain our right to Louisiana in extenso, in consequence of the apparent frustration of our offer to limit ourselves by the Sabine.
The most distinguished wine of Spain is the true and best Xeres, or Sherry of the district around the city of Xeres de la Frontera, in Andalusia. The vineyards of that district are, in situations corresponding in temperature with the most extreme southern parts of East Florida and Louisiana. It is interesting to our inquiry, that all the Portuguese European wines are produced in situations north of Xeres, such as those called by us the Lisbon, the Careavella, the red and the white Port, or Oporto. It is observable, also, that the Malaga, or sweet and dry mountain wines of Spain, long highly esteemed by medical men, those of Alicante and Catalonia, which three kinds we principally import, and all the Spanish brandies we consume, come from districts as far north as that of Xeres. The wines of Castile, and other interior districts of Spain which are consumed at home, and are not exported, are from places also north of Xeres. We can have no reason to doubt, then, that, as our country now is, and shall in future be cleared and drained, and if ridges, hills, and mountain sides, with south exposures, shall be carefully selected, the most southern of our states, territories, and districts, will be as suitable for the vine, its wines, and dried fruits, as the most proper and fruitful parts of the peninsula of Spain and Portugal. The works of travellers, agriculturists, and men of distinction in the arts and sciences, upon the subject of the vine, and wines, and dried grapes of Spain and Portugal, are therefore strongly recommended, by our best interests, to the attention of our citizens, especially concerning the vineyards of Xeres, St. Lucar, Malaga, and Oporto. The Portuguese send to us no brandy; the Spaniards a little of that spirit which is not estimated as good. It seems, from the excellence of the French Cognac brandy, the best, and the farthest north of any denomination of brandy which we know, that the extreme south is not the most favourable for the delicacy, though it is for the quantity of that spirit. The Cette brandy of France is not liked here, but it has been said that much Armagnac brandy is used in Paris. The celebrated French chemist of the grape and of distilled and fermented wine spirits, was a native of Montpelier, and took very great pains to improve the vine, and all its liquors, in that southern region.
A Friend to the National Industry.
Philadelphia, Nov. 1, 1819.
At the early dawn of Thanksgiving day, Mr. Eliphalet Thayer, of Dorcester, (Massachusetts,) took his gun and went to Neponset river for the purpose of getting a shot at gulls. He saw seven wild geese in the river, at which he fired, and hit the gander so as to break his wing. The other geese immediately flew; but the call of the gander brought them down again, so that he had the chance of firing again, and killed the old goose, and one of the young; the four others rose, but the wounded gander by his calls served as a decoy, and they again alighted by him. The third shot crippled another.—Mr. T. then took a boat, and from it killed two as they rose to fly; and soon after shot the seventh. He returned home to his breakfast, about nine o'clock, bringing his seven geese, which weighed about eight pounds each, and produced him above 3 lbs. of feather.
Imports of Wool into England.
AN ACCOUNT OF THE QUANTITY OF WOOL, (SHEEP'S) IMPORTED INTO GREAT BRITAIN, IN TEN YEARS; DISTINGUISHING EACH YEAR, AND THE COUNTRIES FROM WHENCE IMPORTED.—From an English Paper.
|Countries from whence|
|Denmark & Norway||—||105,956||212,086||445,125||61,783|
|Poland and Prussia||228||3,532||7,925||25,189||30,767|
|Flanders and France||201,195||54,714||—||—||—|
|Portugal & Madeira||495,213||230,430||161,204||200,366||239,945|
|Spain and Canaries||5,646,522||4,355,254||6,990,194||6,858,738||5,444,165|
|Gibraltar and Malta||25,000||107,876||159,176||41,395||28,216|
|Italy and Levant||86,258||437,856||206,426||35,173||8,679|
|Countries from whence|
|Denmark & Norway||481,696||11,253||35,523||363,671||12,081|
|Poland and Prussia||—||—||76,528||123,057||—|
|Flanders and France||61,633||—||—||—||—|
|Portugal & Madeira||289,067||30,619||969,033||3,018,961||1,790,286|
|Spain and Canaries||10,291,316||1,961,750||4,283,674||5,952,407||2,581,262|
|Gibraltar and Malta||14,349||78,130||297,445||889,098||210,236|
|Italy and Levant||6,992||—||10,244||21,554||780|
The President of the United States transmitted a message to Congress on the 20th of last month, relating to the acts prohibiting the slave trade, in which he stated that a public vessel was to be sent to Africa, with two public agents, tools and implements necessary to form a settlement, and thereby give relief and support to the people of colour who may be captured on board of slave ships and returned thither.
In Denmark much confusion is stated to prevail, on account of the Jews, particularly at Copenhagen. The king had interfered in their behalf, but neither the people nor the army appeared to pay much respect to him in this matter. A vessel, laden with 500 Jews, flying from persecution in Germany, had arrived at Copenhagen, but were not permitted to land.
It appears by a census lately taken, that the population of the city of New York is 119,657. When the census was taken by order of Rep. Vandam, then president of the province in the year 1731, the population was 8622. The increase in ninety years is nearly twelve-fold.
Died suddenly on the 29th ult. at Salem, (Mass.) the Rev. W. Bentley, D. D. in the 61st year of his age, minister at the east meeting house, and the character to whom the public were indebted, during a great many years, for the unparalleled summaries and notices of events, with historical and critical notes, which so distinguished the Salem, or as it is now denominated, the Essex Register. He was universally respected as a pious and good man.
Great exertions are making, says H. Niles, in his Register, to introduce the practice of manufacturing sugar and molasses from grain, into the western country; and from the representations made, we apprehend that it must be very beneficial in all parts of our country, distant from a market. It is said, that one bushel of good wheat, rye, or corn, will yield from 31⁄2 or 4 gallons of molasses, or about 15 pounds of sugar. The discovery has been patented to James Wiseheart.
The venerable William Ellery, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, is now living at Newport, (R.I.) in the 93d year of his age.
Walsh's "Appeal from the judgments of Great Britain," which appeared in this country about the end of September, was republished in London from the American copy, as early as the 23d of November. The price of the English copy is 18 shillings sterling.
News has been received from Great Britain to the 3d of January. The country continued in a very disturbed state. Parliament was opened on the 23d of November. The Regent recommended such strong measures as to manifest how the matter is viewed by government. His speech was echoed from both houses by great majorities.
The confidential servants of the crown have proposed several bills to parliament, and which were under debate; they are to the following effect. 1st. A stamp duty upon all publications, except religious tracts, and such works consisting of fewer than a stated number of sheets. 2d. Persons convicted a second time of a political libel are subjected to a long imprisonment, banishment, or transportation, at the discretion of the court. 3d. All printers and publishers of works comprehended in the first law, are required to enter into securities with two sureties to be answerable for penalties. 4th. Public meetings not convened by regular constituted authorities are prohibited; it is also proposed to make it unlawful for any person to attend a public meeting out of his own parish, or township. 5th. Magistrates, on information or even on suspicion, are empowered to enter any man's house, in search of arms, and to seize them if found, giving the persons suffering such visits, a right of appeal to the quarter sessions.
Generally the accounts from England prove that the country does not yet experience the blessings of repose, nor are there any indications that it speedily will. On the one hand the reformers appear to be uniting and preparing themselves; and on the other, the government is adopting stronger measures to quell and disperse them.
The reformers have agreed to abstain from all intoxicating liquors, tobacco, and such other exciseable articles as can conveniently be dispensed with, and they strenuously adhere to the principle. This has already had a very severe effect upon the revenue.
Many parts of Ireland appear to be equally unsettled and distressed. The county of Roscommon, in particular, has been declared by proclamation, in a state of disturbance.
The king of France, in his speech to the Chambers, represents that country as in the most auspicious and flourishing condition.
The king of Spain, on the occasion of his marriage, has granted an amnesty to prisoners and subjects in rebellion, with some few exceptions.
Germany, in general, seems still unsettled, and great anxiety apparently prevails. There is much dread of secret societies, and many reports of bands of robbers.
Standt, the murderer of the celebrated Kotzebue, is stated to have recovered from his wounds which he inflicted on himself, and is soon to be brought to trial.
The plague had ceased at Algiers, but still continued to rage at Tunis, where it is said to have carried off 60,000 persons.
Of the number of manuscripts found in the ruins of Herculaneum, and which have been there enclosed for 1696 years, 88 have been unrolled, and are now legible. The unrolling is effected by means of an expensive chemical operation.
The whole district and territory of Kutch, a country situated on the N. W. of Bombay, and including several towns and villages have been destroyed by an earthquake, together with 2000 inhabitants.
A man at Montreal has been fined for cruelly beating his dog.—A person in the state of New York has been fined $30, for maliciously and vexatiously hindering with his wagon, other persons in a carriage from passing him on the highway, by turning his horses so as to impede them.
A fire broke out in Savannah on the night of the 10th ult. which has reduced to ashes the greater and much the most valuable part of that city. Scarcely a fire-proof building is left. The town presents a most wretched picture: 400 houses are said to be entirely consumed. Not a hardware, saddler, or apothecary's shop, or scarcely a dry-good store to be seen. The loss is estimated at from 3 to 5,000,000 of dollars.
Among the memorials presented to the legislature of the state of New York, is one from Mordecai M. Noah, of the city of N. York, setting forth that he "is desirous of purchasing that tract of land belonging to the state, known by the name of Grand Island, situated in the Niagara river, between lake Erie and lake Ontario, and bounded by the possessions of Great Britain in Upper Canada."
The object of the memorialist in this purchase, is to build a town or city, to be inhabited "by a community of Jewish emigrants." Grand Island is stated to contain 20,000 acres of land, being about six miles in length, and two in width.
A pamphlet has been published in Europe, recommending the Jews to form a colony in the United States. The Upper Mississippi and Missouri is recommended for its soil, situation, and climate, as the most suitable place for purchase and settlement.
A national vaccine institution is about forming at Washington, with the view of affording greater facility and certainty in the distribution of vaccine matter.
On the 20th December last, Robert De Bow, of Allentown, (N. J.) killed a hog 23 months old, which, when dressed, weighed 700 pounds.
Boston, Jan. 13.
The great ox, fattened by Mr. Luke Fiske of Waltham, which gained the first premium at Brighton, has been slaughtered, and the beef exhibited for sale in State street. The weight of the parts is as follows:
|Fore quarter,||lbs. 482|
In Spain some experiments have lately been made for the purpose of testing the efficacy of inoculating for the plague. The trials were made on some deserters, 14 in number. The virus was taken from plague sores of the most malignant cast. The patients had olive oil administered internally and externally. Soon after the inoculation, the patients experienced some slight attacks, and little sores broke out on them; but in a few days they were all restored to health. These experiments are calculated to induce a belief that inoculation for the plague may prove as beneficial as it has for the small pox.
The mechanics of Ontario county, (N. Y.) have prepared a memorial to the legislature, which they expect will be supported in other counties, praying that the legislature may pass a law to prevent the sales of mechanical tools and implements by execution or in distress for rent.
From England many are emigrating to the Cape of Good Hope: 1,500 families sailed for that country in November last. Upwards of 12,000 emigrants arrived at Quebec, from Great Britain, during the last season.
Mr. W. Parker, and about 400 others, left England in November last, to establish a colony in Africa, between Cape Town and Algoa bay.
A cast iron pillar, about 48 feet high, is about to be erected in the centre of the town of Sheffield, England, at the top of which, a large ball, lighted with gas is to be placed, for the purpose of lighting the whole town, and its environs.
Twenty-five miles up the Severn, England, a whale, 60 feet in length, and 10 in breadth, was lately stranded. The visit of his whaleship proved highly welcome, and considerable confusion and contention ensued among the neighbouring people who should have the largest part of him.
A London paper of November 7, says, that a new palace is to be begun for the Prince Regent in the spring, on the same spot where Buckingham house now stands. It is to be a superb palace of three fronts, to overlook all Pimlico; and the moderate sum of seven millions is the estimate of its cost! But, as the Prince Regent is reluctant to apply to parliament, the ground of St. James' palace, the King's Mews, and Warwick house are to be sold, and then but 700,000l. will be wanting to complete the new structure. The duke of York is to have Carleton house for a valuable consideration. The triumphal arch is to be the grand entrance to London from the new palace.
Wm. Ogden Niles of Baltimore, has issued proposals for publishing a weekly paper, to be entitled, "The Domestic Economist," to be devoted exclusively to manufacturing industry and political economy, with statistical facts and remarks. Price $3 per annum.
The Comptroller of the State of New York, has communicated to the legislature a detailed statement of the monies paid out of the state treasury, to the several counties, during the last five years, as bounties for the destruction of wolves.
The following exhibits the amount paid to each county.
The earl of Dalhousie is appointed governor of the Canadas. Sir P. Maitland administers the government till spring.
Boerhaave in his old age.
All peculiarities in the lives of great men are interesting, and much more so when they relate to their latter years. The name of Boerhaave is regarded as the most illustrious in the annals of modern medicine. After having courageously withstood the evils of poverty in his youth, his talents and reputation enabled him, it is said, to realize a property of two millions of florins, which he left to an only daughter. Let us see whether his wealth had not changed his occupations and taste.
In a letter, written in his 67th year, to his old pupil Bassand, then appointed Physician to the Emperor of Germany, he speaks thus of himself:
"My health is very good—I sleep at my country house, and return to town at five in the morning; I am engaged till six in the evening in visiting the sick. I know something of chemistry—I amuse myself with reading—I revere, I love, I adore God alone. On my return to the country, I visit my plants—and gratefully acknowledge and admire the liberal presents of my friend Bassend. My garden appears proud of the variety and vigour of its trees. I waste my life in contemplating my plants, and grow old with the desire of possessing new ones—Pleasing delusion! who will give me the large-leaved linden tree of Bohemia, and that of Silicia, more extraordinary, with folio cucullato. Thus riches serve only to increase the thirst for wealth, and the covetous man abuses the liberality of his benefactor. Pardon the dotage of an old friend, who wishes to plant trees, the beauty and shade of which can charm only his nephews. Thus my years glide on without any chagrin, but that of your absence."
How much is there in these few lines! what activity, what zeal for suffering humanity, what piety; what innocence and vivacity in his taste, at an age when they are nearly extinct in most men.
Under the mountains adjoining Kiow, on the frontiers of Russia and in the deserts of Podolia, are several catacombs or subterranean vaults, which the ancients used for burying places, and where a great number of human bodies are still preserved entire, though interred many ages since, having been better embalmed, and become neither so hard nor so black as the Egyptian mummies. Among them are two princes in the habits they used to wear. It is thought that this preserving quality is owing to the nature of the soil, which is dry and sandy.
A correspondent, who observed some time since a publication relative to the extraction of oil from pumpkin seeds, has recently, from curiosity, made an experiment of the same on a very limited scale. He assures us, the extract obtained, is of equal flavour and sweetness with the best of olive oil. Our correspondent is of opinion, that the publication alluded to above, originated with the "Harmony Society," in the state of Pennsylvania; and if so, is desirous of knowing the best method in practice for extracting the oil from the seed.
There are few sentiments stronger, or more natural to the human heart, than that of indignation at oppression. So predominant is it, that it is to be found, not with the good and virtuous only, but even amongst the most unprincipled and vicious. If there is any thing that addresses itself to all that is generous in the heart, it is this sentiment. What is more, it is the solemn duty of every man, to set his face against injustice.
We understand a patent has lately been taken out, by a gentleman from Massachusetts, for an invention which seems to promise extensive, advantage to navigation, if once fairly brought into operation. It consists, principally, in a new method for sub-marine ploughing, to any necessary depth, by the power of a steam boat. When the matter is effectually loosened up and pulverized, it cannot reasonably be doubted but the rapidity of ebb-tides, united with the natural current of the rivers, will soon carry it off, and keep the channel open. The inventor is now in this city, giving a perspicuous view of his plan, which appears uncommonly simple and practicable. The advantages of being able to plough open channels through the shoals which so frequently form in many of our immense rivers, would, alone, be an object of very great advantage to our southern and western states; but, when we consider the invention as extending to opening channels for large ships to enter the harbours and rivers throughout our whole sea-board, the advantages presented to view are incalculable.
The Agricultural Society of Fredericksburg, in Virginia, have drawn up and transmitted a remonstrance to Congress, against the attempts making by our Domestic manufacturers, and their friends, to increase the duties upon foreign goods, wares and merchandise.
In the short space of two years and five months, One hundred and twenty miles of Artificial Navigation, on two great canals through the interior of the State of New York have been completed, by which the physical practicability of uniting the Atlantic Ocean, with the great western lakes, is rendered no longer doubtful!
It is estimated that the value of straw bonnets manufactured in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut, exceeds 300,000 dollars in the 1817, and great improvements have latterly been made,—which, together with the discovery of a vegetable by which the best quality of Leghorn bonnets are successfully imitated, is likely to render our fair country-women independent of foreign supplies in this respect, and at the same time furnish a delicate employment to many others of their own sex. There are few things that more properly demand the attention of congress than this manufacture, so far as its amount goes. As, gentleman, certainly they will encourage the ladies in their industrious habits.
Boston (Mass.) Jan. 5th.
Saturday about noon two very brilliant Parhelia, (or Mock Suns) and beautiful Corona, attracted the attention of numerous spectators. Mock Suns were equidistant from the Sun (by conjecture about 20° East and West of it) with comas, or tails, extending in opposite directions from the luminary five or six times their diameter, which appeared to the eye a little less than the apparent diameter of the Sun. The Corona was estimated to be about 30° to the northward of the Sun, and nearly in our zenith, and exhibited all the bright colours of the rainbow, the inside next the Sun being red. The colour of the Parhelia was orange colour of white flame. The Corona formed an are of about a quarter of a circle; and between it and the Sun was a segment less brilliant and defined.
The atmosphere was unusually clear, and the space between the Mock Suns, and the real Sun, was a perfect blue expanse, without the least appearance of the vapour and spicula which must have occasioned the phenomena. We noticed them nearly an hour, when they gradually disappeared, leaving a cloudless sky. The phenomena was observed at Salem.
A curiosity.—It is stated in an English paper of Nov. 12th, that Mr. Creswick, of New Street, Birmingham, has a singular article of cutlery in his possession, viz: a knife which contains 400 blades, and which, before it was put together, consisted of 5000 parts.
Public libraries of Germany.
The royal library of Munich contains a collection of 400,000 volumes. That of Gottingen, which is one of the most celebrated in Germany, contains 280,000 volumes, 110,000 academic dissertations, and 5000 manuscripts; the Dresden library contains 250,000 printed books, 100,000 dissertations, and 4000 manuscripts. The library of Wolfenbuttel is particularly celebrated for its valuable collection of ancient works; it contains 190,000 printed volumes, 10,000 dissertations, and 4000 manuscripts. Among the 182,000 volumes which compose the library of Stutgard, there are 12,000 different editions of the Bible. There are seven public libraries in Berlin; the two principal ones are the royal library and the library of the academy; the former contains 160,000 volumes, and the latter 30,000. It may be calculated that the total number of books contained in the public libraries of the German States, amount to upwards of 4,000,000, besides the various memoirs, pamphlets, periodical publications, dissertations, and manuscripts.
PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY
RICHARDS & CALEB JOHNSON,
No. 31, Market Street,
At $3.00 per annum.
Griggs & Dickinson—Printers, Whitehall.
 The author of a long letter to the "Edinburgh Reviewers," published in the National Intelligencer.
 The climate of Italy is now warmer than it was in the Augustan age, which Buffon ascribes to the draining of great tracts of swampy lands in Germany.
 "Un Romain meme le plus indigent rougiroit de cultiver la terre." Bosc.
 "Two thirds of Tuscany consist of mountains." Vol. viii. p. 232. Geographic, Mathematique et Phisique: See also Forsyth's remarks, p. 80, where are detailed the principal causes of her prosperity. "Leopold," says he, "in selling the crown lands, studiously divided large tracts of rich but neglected land, into small properties. His favourite plan of encouraging agriculture consisted, not in boards, societies, and premiums, but in giving the labourer a security and interest in the soil—in multiplying small freeholders—in extending the livelli, or life leases, &c. &c.
 It is among the most important covenants of a Tuscan lease, that one third of the ground be annually worked with a spade.
 Geographic, Mathematique, &c. Article Italie.
 Idem. Article Helvetia.
 It appears from Varro Dere rustica and the letters of Cassiodorus, that the Goths introduced into Spain the subterranean granaries, called Siilos, and the art of irrigation. The former are now exclusively used in Tuscany, and Cato's precept, 'Prata irrigua,' &c. shews whence their knowledge of the latter was derived.
 Burgoing's modern Spain, vol. i.
 Borde's Hineraira de l'Espagne, vol. iv. p. 30.
 Burgoing. Spain has been long renowned for its horses. The Romans, in settling their pedigree and illustrating their swiftness, called them 'the children of the winds.'
 Swinburne's Travels, Vol. I. A Spanish peasant, who has earned or begged enough for the wants of the day, will refuse to earn more, even by running an errand. Striking as this fact is, it does not so well illustrate Spanish indolence as the following anecdote from the same pen. In the great sedition at Madrid, which ended in the defeat of the king and the disgrace of his minister, (the Marquis des Squillas) and in its most fervid moments, both parties retired about dinner time to take their nap or meridiana, after which they returned to the combat with new vigour and enraged fury. If habits can thus control the passions, to what important uses might not a wise legislation turn them?
 Le Borde's Heneraire D'Espagne, Vol. 1.
 See Geographique, &c. Vol. VI. Art. France, p. 13, and Young's tour through France.
 The products of agricultural labour, were, in these tables, stated at 114,552,000 L. T. Those of manufacturing labour at 128,015,000.
 The effects of the revolution of 1789 on agriculture are no longer doubtful. The suppression of tythes—of the exclusive privilege—of the chase—of every species of corvee (labour performed by tenants for landlords)—of taxes or rents, and of rights of commonage—was among these effects; and if to these we add the division of the great landed estates of the nobility and clergy, there can no longer be any scepticism on this point. No truth is better established than the advantage of small farms over great, as far as the public is concerned. The Roman latifundia (military grants) destroyed Roman agriculture.
 Herbin's statistique Gen. de la France Vol. I. introduc.
 See Doctor Tissot's advice to the people of Lusanne.
 Vevay, on the Ohio, is in 38° 30' N.
 Glasgow is in 37°.
 Chaptal, whose writings on the subject should be in every planter's hands, and in every agricultural and public library. The title of Mr. Chaptal's work is "A Theoretical and Practical Treatise on the culture of the Vine, with the art of preparing wine, brandy, &c. By Chaptal, Parmentier, and Dasseux. 2 vols. octavo, Paris, A. D. 1801." In French, Chaptal, P. and D. sur la culture de la Vigne, &c. Paris, 1801, 2 tom. oct.
 Sailors, we believe, call them dog suns.
Minor typographical and punctuation errors have been corrected without note. Irregularities and inconsistencies in the text have been retained as printed.
Mismatched quotes are not fixed if it's not sufficiently clear where the missing quote should be placed.
The cover for the eBook version of this book was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.